2003 JALT Pan-SIG Conference Proceedings

Transcription approaches to multilingual discourse analysis
by Tim Greer

Appendix 1: Transcription conventions

Greer (2003), after Jefferson
[                  marks overlapping talk
(.4)               marks silence, in tenths of a second
(.)                indicates a micropause
((hand clap))      indicates non-verbal behaviour
gaijin dakara      italics indicates talk is in Japanese
'cos he's foreign' single quotes indicate an English translation of Japanese talk
hh, hee, hah, heh  indicate laughter or breathiness
!                  denotes emotion
dog                underlining marks emphasis
HUH                capitals mark increased loudness
&                  indicates a rise in pitch
m                  indicates a drop in pitch
°                  marks talk which is softer
><                 Indents mark talk which is compressed, faster
=                  indicates that talk is latched; there is no interval between the end 
                   of a prior turn and the start of the next turn
-                  marks a cut off

Gafaranga and Torras (2002)
Underlined          undecided language
(.)                 pause
(...)               omitted fragment
//                  overlapping talk
xxx                 unintelligible talk

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